HOME PAGE.

SITEMAP
HELP.

BIG BIG BIG NONLINEAR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN SECRET  NONLINEAR DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN OVERVIEW.

ONE NONLINEAR ASSIGNMENT WILL CHANGE INSTRUCTION AND LEARNING.

ASK THE PROFESSOR A QUESTION NONLINEAR DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN.

NONLINEAR CREATIVE NONLINEAR DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN TRIAD.

NONLINEAR DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN.

NONLINEAR DICTIONARY INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN.

NONLINEAR DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AWARDS.

NONLINEAR DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN REAL LIFE LEARNING.

NONLINEAR DIGITAL LEARNING FINAL PAPERS JOB AIDS.

NONLINEAR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN INDIVIDUALIZED TESTING.

NONLINEAR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN CASE STORIES.  
REAL CASE STORY JAMES L FISHER LTD REPORT ASSESSMENT.

TEXTBOOK TRIAD OF IMPORTANT INFORMATION.

NONLINEAR WHAT CAN YOU DO?

VIDEO'S INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN.


VITA ID LINKS.  CONTACT NONLINEAR DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN.  WEB RELEASES.


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS TO AND FROM THE FIELD OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN.


© 1996 - 2008

3/22/08


NONLINEAR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN CASE STORIES

Nonlinear Case Stories are Superior
to Linear Case Studies


Dr. David Morris After School

Good Teacher and Student Assignment

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN CASE STORIES

Professor of Marketing, David Morris created the concept of case stories. The idea comes from my work in marketing and storytelling. Marketing education applies case studies as a learning form. My own experiences with case studies are that they have little value for learners. Information is inaccurate, too limited to come to any understanding, and too functional.

Case stories are not presented as an absolute truth but rather a point of view derived from an experience. They begin with an entry into a story with A long time ago..  The story is then told. The case story can then be applied to any course or content area application. Case stories give the student the insight of how to think about the same experience from infinite perspectives. Take your own discipline and write an application from the two case stories on this page. Do not change the story just the application. I will put your application under the case stories with your name.

REAL OR NOT REAL

A long time ago and a short time ago. In a place both near and far away a professor was returning on the train from New York City to New Haven. A man that sat across from him had a box that said Rolex on it. The professor asked if he had just purchased a Rolex watch in New York City?

The man said yes that he had purchased the watch on the street for $200 and he wanted to know how to adjust the band. The professor offered to adjust the band for the man. When the professor took the watch the band was hollow. An expensive watch would be solid stainless.

The man asked the professor if the watch was real? The professor said that he did not know but if it was not real the man should still enjoy the watch. The man agreed and was happy to have the watch.

When discussing the story with his marketing class most of the students said that they would have told the man that he had been taken and the watch was not real. The man should know how stupid that he was.

Marketing Application

Expensive products bought on the street are very often not real. Street venders sell expensive looking products for a low price compared to the retail price to entice the consumer to buy the product.

It seems that each of us must actually experience this type of purchasing deception to believe that this is possible. The addition of a receipt, box and tags that that have the Rolex logo does not mean it is true. A watch with the Rolex logo on the face does not mean that it is a Rolex watch.

The consumer must either learn to identify the real product or go to retail outlets who sell the product. They should still check to see if the watch is real.

If you want a Rolex watch it should be known that a Seiko watch tells as good a time. The difference in price between the Rolex and the Seiko is marketing.

From a marketing storytelling perspective Rolex has told a story that customers are willing to pay more to differentiate them self from others.

SAMPLE
(Back to Top)

A long time ago and a short time ago. In a place both near and far away a professor was watching 20/20. The issue of free samples came up at Costco. The position taken on the show was that these samples encourage customers to purchase more than they may have desired.

Marketing Application

It is completely ethical to offer a customer a small sample of a legal product to encourage a purchase. Costco does not actually spend the money for the employees that do this or for the products. These employees are hired by a private company. The samples are supplied by the company that is selling the product.

I have seen that Costco does not allow the venders to bring in their own food products to sell. They must purchase the give a ways from Costco at that time. This is a good ideal for Costco. If Costco allowed outsiders to bring in their own products they may find that product were being used from their own inventory.

In the past in many countries in the world when you go to a store the owner offers you a cup to tea, coffee, and some cookies. I was just in Las Vegas and asked for a sample of Hagan Das ice cream sold in the casino. They said no so I did not buy the overpriced ice cream.

Just because you are offered a free sample does not mean that the product or other products in the store are being sold at a fair price. When free samples are given sales tend to increase dramatically.

In other circumstances a organization may request a great deal of front end work as a sample of what you can do for them. I have seen many good small business people be taken advantage of by big name corporations using this technique.

More examples on my web site www.marketingandstorytelling.com

LINEAR AND NONLINEAR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
(Back to Top)

2/13/08  Response to Blog

www.effectivedesign.org
Instructional design in academia–where theory and practice RARELY meet Dr. john h Curry 3/7/08


May I suggest that it is not Instructional Design that is the issue in your article? What you are talking about is the difference between linear and nonlinear Instructional Design. Linear ID was created and supported by the US Military to train soldiers. Only to train soldiers. ID has spilled over into corporate training and now distance learning. The difference in military, corporate training, and distance learning is that the military actually cares if the soldier learns the training content. Going for training in the corporation is more of an indicator of success than what is learned. This culminates when they reached top management and receive a week at Harvard Business School. Distance learning is just a trick to make money for textbook conglomerates and universities. They will now be able to fire faculty on mass.

Linear Training

Linear theory in Instructional Design is very clear and straightforward when applied to military training. The only challenge for us as ID specialists is to become a devotee to a particular ID model. This usually depends on our professor’s devotion.

I know the damage these linear ID models do to learning and instruction will be very clear when compared to Nonlinear Instructional Design Theory. This theory has been created by David Morris because I was able to become the content specialist. I am a Professor of Marketing with a Ph.D. in Instructional Design from Syracuse. I began as an assistant professor of marketing without having ever taken one course in business. When I first began to teach marketing and looked at the marketing textbooks, I thought how could these people get away with this theft.

Wisdom and Instructional Design

I immediately applied the ADDIE model to marketing. It just did not fit because ADDIE, marketing, all business content and practice are linear. I solved this as a visiting marketing professor at Trinity College in Ireland. I began by putting ADDIE across the top of the page and then searching through the textbooks to find the equivalent ideas in marketing. What did the marketing textbooks think represented analysis? What did they think design was in marketing? And so on.

This can just not be done. It is impossible applying a linear ID model to ever changing linear marketing content and processes. In a conversation with an Irish Professor he said keep the ADDIE process stable for all marketing and business content. Bingo nonlinear Instructional design theory began. Marketing and all other content became simply the story that is told applying ADDIE. I added three more concepts to ADDIE to incorporate all storytelling content. I created the nonlinear model of CSDADDIE by adding C cosmology, S storytelling, and D direction. This now incorporates all known and unknown content to a common process.

What happened over my career is that my linear instructional design professors that I admire and learned a great deal from had no idea of what I was suggesting. My fellow linear marketing professors began to see this CSDADDIE model as a threat because they could not justify all the changes in processes in their courses. A new top administration came in to run the university like a business. The business model of training was just wonderful because not one student is accountable in industry for what they learn in marketing. They are only accountable for the memorization of useless content and processes.

I was informed, that I must return to teaching my students the exact textbook content applying rote memory. If I did not I would be accused, moved, or even fired for not teaching marketing. To accomplish this they made plans to unify my marketing course content with all the professors. All groups of students with their different professor would then receive the same textbook tests. If it was found that any professor’s students did not perform, equally well on the same test that professor would be rehabilitated.

For me, textbook testing consisted of student memorization of all the 50 plus changes in marketing processes in one textbook. I took the textbook test myself after 20 years of teaching marketing and failed. I wrote an essay on this and asked my fellow professors in the world to take the test. I was not suggesting that other professors must do as I was doing. That was their decision. However, I thought it would be enlightening for them to see the harm they were causing.

I suggested to our president that to force textbook sales through testing on my students was against my religious beliefs. I also suggested that for any institution of higher education to support textbook use while benefiting from the huge revenues generated may come to be considered immoral.

If interested in learning more about nonlinear Instructional Design applied to content that is simply defined through its story please go to my websites. If you wish to comment or join me, I will be happy to work with you.
www.marketingandstorytelling.com
www.digitalinstructionaldesign.com
David Morris, Ph.D.

 

Math is Linear 3/14/08

A long time ago and a short time ago. In a place both near and far away a professor asked his wife if gold was 400 dollars an oz and now it was 1000 how much was the increase? She said 2 1/2 times. I could not figure this out because to me it was 1 1/2 times.

I then realized that much of my life long problems with math was the way they ask questions. I was never taught what they were talking about and wanted to really find out. I just gave up and said I will go through life without knowing math.

Marketing Issue

Math teacher are as big a rats as anyone else. They create barriers to entry as much as any other field. Without the means of interpretation what they are really saying a learner has not got a chance.


GENERAL INFORMATION FOR INTERNET CASE STORY STUDENT ASSIGNMENT

Student Assignment Using the Internet

Take three cases from your marketing textbook. Make sure that they are real companies and that the textbook has enough information on the companies you select. Some cases are just too small.

Compare each of the three textbook cases with what information you can find on the Internet on your selected companies.

The object of this paper is very important to you as a marketing student and practitioner. Marketing Management currently structured as a case course relies on textbook cases. These cases are deemed to provide you with the thinking skills and experience to function in a marketing position when you graduate.

What I am interested in is the impact of the Internet compared to a case textbook. This is part of the concept of real life learning. Each student assists in the creation of their own learning experience.

The following is a job aid for your final paper. When you are a marketing manager and you have tasks that you want people to work on. It is best for you to create the organizing structure to help guide these people. If everyone organizes the way they wish it can easily interfere with the outcomes. I am not talking about findings but rather how the findings are organized. This is called process or a system in marketing.

STUDENT JOB AID

Remember you select the three companies

Cover page

Title of your paper

The names of the 3 companies that you are assessing

Your name

Your E-mail

Course name and number

Date

Name of professor

No page number on this page.

Next page is numbered page 2.

Begin with the heading below.

General Overview of Assignment

Tell what the assignment is and companies that you are to assess. Write a 100 to 200 word overview of what you were assigned to do in this paper. (In your own words) In this overview discuss that that you are comparing marketing case studies from your textbook with information found on the internet. (12 pt font size) (Single spaced)

Now divide your paper into three major sections. One for each selected company number. Each major section represents one of the selected cases from your marketing textbook.

Remember you select the companies

E-Bay

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Findings

Now compare your findings between the textbook case and the Internet for E-Bay.

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Start at the top of a new page

Pepsi Cola

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Findings

Now compare your findings between the textbook case and the Internet for Pepsi Cola.

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Start at the top of a new page

IBM

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Textbook Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Internet Category of Provided Information

Discuss what information was provided.

What you found in the case book under this category

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Findings

Now compare your findings between the textbook case and the Internet for IBM.

250 to 300 words Single spaced

Conclusion for E-Bay, Pepsi Cola, and IBM

After you go through all three case companies comparing the textbook with the Internet now do an overall assessment of your findings on the entire assignment. Compare and contrast the marketing case textbook methods for you with the internet as a method for learning marketing cases. 250 to 300 words Single spaced

Check and see if the student followed the above job aid. You will see how to begin learning how to write them.

STRATEGIC MARKETING CASE ANALYSIS
(Back to Top)

A Student's Work

GATEWAY, INC.

CADBURY BEVERAGES, INC.

CRACKER JACK

This is a paper of a good student of mine.


Strategic Marketing MK515

03/23/

Overview of Assignment

This is a marketing analysis overview in which I will compare the usefulness of specific case studies, found in the textbook, Strategic Marketing Problems Cases and Comments, with that of the related information fond on the internet.  The companies that I will asses are Gateway, Inc. Cadbury Beverages, Inc, and Cracker Jack.  In order to assure that I maintain a uniform comparison of ideas I will pick the marketing case categories from the textbook and then those same categories found on the internet.  I will then compare the information found in both resource tools.  After that I will state what would have been helpful if added to the textbook from the internet

2. Gateway, Inc.

2.1 Gateway Company Base and Product Line, Gateway Direct Marketing and Distribution, The Market for Personal Computers, PC Manufactures and Marketing Practices

2.1.1Textbook Case Information In the Gateway Company Base and Product Line section the book talks about Gateway’s products and services.  It also says who makes up the majority of its customers.  It talks about the “beyond-the-box” offerings the company makes and also how they stress customer relations more than anything else.  It then gives some sales numbers.  In the Gateway Direct Marketing and Distribution section the book talks about how the company sells the majority of its products through telephone sales, their internet website, and Gateway stores. 

It then gives some detail about their selling process. It then goes into specifics about their stores and multi channel distribution.  It says how since they use that three channel distribution formula for sales it gives them an added advantage from their competition.  The Market for Personal Computers talks about the time period when personal computers started to become in demand. 

It then gives some number analysis showing basically how from the mid 1990’s through 2000 the demand was on a rise and then in 2001 it fell off.  In the book PC Manufactures and Marketing Practices section talks about how there are five large US based manufactures who compete globally.  It then goes on to list those five.  Under this category they talk about the market positions and sales percentages of these companies compared to Gateway in 2000. 

This category also covers differentiation which basically covers how each manufacturer separates their product from one another. The category goes on to talk about production, distribution, business models, and their build-to-stock/reseller model.  It then talks about the difference between their build-to-stock/reseller model and the build-to-order/sell direct model.  Basically, the direct model is a customized PC which meets a customers specifications and the reseller model is the one which goes into the stores. 

Also included is a comparison between the way Gateway does business and the way Dell does business.  They both pioneered the build-to-order/sell direct business model in the late 1980’s and were both founded by young entrepreneurs.  Gateway differentiates from dell with the implementation of their Gateway Country stores, they were the only company out there who had stores in addition to their telephone and internet sales practice. Dell however, concentrated more on its direct sales build-to-order business model by selling PC’s through Soft Warehouse Superstores.

2.1.2 Internet Case Information

In researching on the internet, the internet talks about how Gateway was founded in 1985 in an Iowa farmhouse, Gateway has grown into one of America's best known brands with millions of satisfied customers. Starting with a $10,000 loan guaranteed by his grandmother, a rented computer and a three-page business plan, Ted Waitt turned Gateway into a revolutionary company whose innovations helped shape the technology industry. 

The company — previously called Gateway 2000 — received national acclaim in 1991 when it introduced its distinctive cow-spotted boxes, a tribute to its farm heritage. I also found some web information about Gateway’s product line.  I learned not only do they make computers; they also make a large range of software and accessory products. Another thing the book and the computer both had information on is the way Gateway makes a bill-to-order sell direct model and a build-to-stock reseller model.   Another area of interesting information the book and internet shared was Gateways competition such as Dell.  I also was able to find information on company numbers.

2.1.3 Comparison of Textbook to Internet

After looking over the information I found in my textbook and the information I found on the internet with regards to this case study I felt the information was fairly equal.  I felt that both the book and the internet had pretty much the same amount of good and useful material.  The only place I would give an edge to the book is that this information is very organized and acts as a great stepping stone to take with you to the internet to go in further detail.  Basically, I am saying the book is a great tool to have to gain the basic knowledge about a company.  The internet is a little better with details and with accuracy, since the internet may be more up to date.   Basically, you can take the information you learned from the book and apply it to the internet and with a little bit of time and effort you can find even more valuable and useful information about the case.

2.2. PC Trade-In Program, Customer Information, Fact Sheet, Sales Channels, In the Community

2.2.1 Textbook Case Information For the PC Trade-In Program the book doesn’t have anything to say about it.  This is a new program that Gateway is running and because the © of the case in the book is 2002 the case doesn’t cover this new program.  Gateway stresses and goes to great lengths to insure the Customer Satisfaction. The book does not talk about how much they stress the customer satisfaction with contact numbers and who to call if something goes wrong the internet does. 

In the Sales Channel section on the internet it talks about the different venues and markets Gateway is trying to push and sell their different product lines too.  It goes over the different market segmentation and target market audience Gateway is trying to work with.  The book on the other hand, doesn’t talk about the different sales channels and markets Gateway is trying to push.  In the fact sheet information on the internet it states that in early 2004, the company acquired machines, one of the world's fastest growing and most efficient PC makers.  The book doesn’t talk about the new products such as the emachines.  These machines are growing rapidly and are another key in learning about Gateway on the internet compared to the book.  The internet was much more useful in looking for different areas of the Gateway.

2.2.2 Internet Case Information In the PC Trade-In Program on the internet it says you can maximize your investment and upgrade to the latest Gateway technology today! The Gateway Trade-in and Recycle Program offers you the ability to receive a trade-in rebate when you purchase a PC or other products from Gateway and trade-in your pre-owned PC or peripheral product (s), making your new Gateway purchase even more affordable. In the Customer Information section the internet talks about how Gateway goes to great lengths to ensure complete customer satisfaction. But occasionally, they might fall short of that lofty goal. In such cases, Gateway employs independent arbitration to resolve the issue as quickly and conveniently as possible for their customers. It's direct, it's fair, it's cost-efficient and it's effective. 

In the fact sheet information on the internet it states that in early 2004, the company acquired machines, one of the world's fastest growing and most efficient PC makers. Wayne Inouye, a seasoned executive responsible for eMachines' dramatic turnaround, was named president & CEO of Gateway in March. He immediately refocused the company's efforts on its core PC business and convergence products like Media Center PCs, MP3 players and digital displays. The company moved its headquarters to Irvine, Calif. in September 2004.  In the section about Sales Channel the internet talks about the different venues and markets Gateway is trying to push and sell their different product lines too.  It goes over the different market segmentation and target market audience Gateway is trying to work with. 

At Gateway, they believe charitable giving and employee volunteerism is an important responsibility. They are dedicated to community involvement both as individual citizens and as a corporation. Gateway’s employee commitment is shown through their frequent participation in local community activities. Through donations from the Gateway Foundation, we are able to provide underserved youths and schools access to state-of-the-art technology.

2.2.3 Comparison of Textbook to Internet After researching the internet information and comparing it to the textbook information I feel this is where the internet earns its slight edge over the text.  What I discovered pretty much backed up the earlier statements I made that while the textbook is an excellent base learning point the internet provides much further detail.  I found several key marketing categories and information that was important information. I felt it was key to learn about the different sales channel and the new PC trade-in program Gateway has.  The new PC trade-in program is a perfect example of showing how the internet is useful because it is filled with current and up to date information.  In these categories I found the internet to be more useful than the textbook was. 

3. Cadbury Beverages, Inc

3.1 Soft Drinks, Industry Structure, Soft Drink Marketing, Major Competitors, Competitor Positioning and Advertising, Competitor Pricing and Promotion, Bottler Network Development, Positioning Issues, Advertising and Promotion.

3.1.1 Textbook Case Information

In the Soft Drink section in the book it talks about soft drinks and how Cadbury Schweppes PLC is the world’s largest soft drink marketer behind Coca-Cola and PepsiCo. The company has achieved this status through consistent marketing investment in the Schweppes brand name and extensions to different beverage products such as tonic, ginger ale, club soda, and seltzer in various flavors. Also, there is a chart for the US product list for Cadbury Beverages showing all there products within their name and extensions.

For example, there are beverages under Schweppes, Canada Dry, Sunkist, and Crush.  The book also talks about how they acquired all the Crush brand worldwide trademarks from Procter & Gamble for $220 million.  Canada Dry is their top-selling ginger ale in the United States; Schweppes is the leading tonic water, and Canada Dry seltzers top the club soda/seltzer category.  In the Industry Structure section the book talks about how there are three major participants in the production and distribution of carbonated soft drinks in the United States. 

In the United States there are over 40 concentrate producers. However, about 82 percent of industry sales are accounted for by three producers: Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, and Dr, Pepper/7Up. There are concentrate producers, bottlers, and retail outlets. There are approximately 1,000 bottling plants in the United States convert flavor concentrate into carbonated soft drinks.  They show an exhibit which shows the approximate price and cost structure for orange concentrate producers and bottlers. 

In the Soft Drink Marketing section the book talks about how Cadbury is characterized by a heavy investment in advertising, selling and promotion to and through bottlers to retail outlets, and consumer price discounting.  In the book it talks about Flavor and Brand Competition and Colas account for slightly less than two-thirds of the total carbonated soft drink sales. All the other flavors, like root beer, orange, grape, they all account for the remaining sales.

The book also talks about the Soft Drink Purchase and Consumption Behavior and the industry research suggests that the purchase of soft drinks in supermarkets is often unplanned. The book show a chart of the Market share of top 10 soft drinks brands in the United States, in 1989.  The book talks about Cadbury’s Major Competitors. The talk about the competition between PepsiCo’s Orange Slice, Cadbury’s Sunkist, and Coca-Cola’s Minute Main Orange in 1989. 

PepsiCo. lead the market with 20.8 percent of sales, while Cadbury and Coca-Cola shared 14.4 and 14 percent. They show a chart of the market shares for the major competitors for the period of 1985-1989.  The Competitor Positioning and Advertising section in the book talks about the four major competitors who attempted to stake out a unique position within the orange category.  Slightly over $26 million was spent on advertising by the four major brands in 1989. Crush was promoted most frequently on spot television, in newspapers, and on outdoor signage. In the Competitor Pricing and Promotion section the book talks about how the pricing among the four major competitors differed very little. 

The price differential between regular and diet concentrate was virtually the same across competitors.  Advertising and promotion programs were jointly implemented and financed by concentrate producers and bottlers.  The book shows a chart for the competitive positioning and performance, in 1989.  This chart shows the positioning of the product, the target market, the package sales mix, and the loyalty of brand buyers. The book also shows the concentrate producers advertising expenditures for Broadcast and Print Media for Major orange soft drinks brands from 1985-1989. 

In the Bottler Network Development section the book talks about recognizing the traditional and central role that bottlers play in the soft drink industry, company marketing and sales executives immediately embarked on an aggressive effort to recruit bottlers for the Crush line.  The Crush bottling network had gradually eroded in the 1980’s due n part to Procter & Gamble’s decision to test a distribution system for selling Crush through warehouses rather than through bottlers.

The book talks about the Positioning Issues related to positioning were being addressed while the bottler recruitment effort was under way.  One issue concerned the relative emphasis on regular and diet Crush with respect to Mandarin Orange Slice and Minute Maid Orange.  Another issue was viable positions had to be considered that did not run contrary to previous positioning and a historical review of Crush positioning was conducted.  In the Advertising and Promotion section the book talks about how Crush marketing executives were pleasantly surprised to learn that the Crush brand had high name awareness in the markets served by existing the new bottlers.  Also those objectives for the advertising and promotion had to be established and communicated to the advertising agency that would represent Crush

3.1.2 Internet Case Information

The similar information I found on the internet in relation to those specific marketing categories are that Cadbury Schweppes is a major global company that manufactures markets and distributes branded beverages and confectionery products around the world. With origins stretching back over 200 years, today Cadbury Schweppes' products - which include brands like Cadbury, Schweppes, Dr Pepper, Snapple, Trebor and Bassett - are enjoyed in almost 200 countries across the world. Employing over 36,000 people, Cadbury Schweppes is the world's third largest soft drink company and the fourth largest confectionery company. 

On the Internet I found some webpage information about where they fall in their industry and how they structure their different product lines. I also found similar information about how they produced their products and also market them. The internet also talks about Cadbury’s competition and how their consumers behave towards their soft drinks just like in the textbook.  More information that was highlighted in the book and on the internet was information on Cadbury’s advertising campaign like what products it was pushing and how much money they were spending. 

Another important aspect of Cadbury’s Marketing Campaign was network development.  Similar information was found in both the textbook and the internet.  Finally, I was able to find information on the internet also about Cadbury’s Promotional Campaign and how they are still putting a high importance on earning consumer awareness.  They basically are trying to earn the same name brand recognition that Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have.

3.1.3 Comparison of Textbook to Internet

Comparing the information found in the textbook with that of the information found on the internet, I would say is generally about the same.  I feel the textbook works well because it is very easy to learn about the company because all of the information is easily accessible and in one general area.  The book does an excellent job of teaching someone a great deal of useful company and marketing information.  The information on the internet pretty much reveals the same information.  The only draw back is that the internet information is not organized as well, but with a little bit of effort and time I was able to find the similar information.  I feel the only area where the information on the internet is just a little better than the information found in the textbook is because it goes into greater detail in certain areas like the number analysis and sometimes certain information and facts are also much more up to date and current.  So, basically I feel they are both very good learning tools for someone to have.  The book is a great way to start and will give an individual a great foundation tom learn, and then the internet just adds to that base knowledge.

3.2 Our Strategy, Goals & Priorities, Marketplace, Structure & Organization, Financial Numbers, Business Principles

3.2.1Textbook Case Information

In the textbook there was very limited information about Cadbury’s Strategy on how they plan to create robust and sustainable regional positions in its two core markets.  Cadbury has excited markets where they believed they didn’t have or could not build sustainable business models.  The internet also talks about

Cadbury’s Goals and Priorities in which the textbook had no information about.  The g roup's five goals for the 2004-2007 period are to: deliver superior shareowner returns on the back of superior business performance profitably and significantly increase their share of the global confectionery market profitably secure and then grow their share of the regional beverages markets in which the group has chosen to participate and ensure that the group's growth capabilities are best in class and to reinforce their reputation as a Company which motivates, develops and rewards employees for superior performance and makes a difference in the communities in which we do business. The internet talks about the structure and organization within Cadbury another section in which the case in the textbook did not cover. 

The internet covered an organizational change designed to position the group more effectively to drive a more focused growth and efficiency agenda, to enable the successful integration of Adams and to put the next generation of management in place. The Financial Numbers and the Business Principles sections on the internet are not talked about in the case that the textbook has.  Cadbury’s business principles reflect and reinforce this.

Through those principles they continue to play a positive part in society, grow shareowner value, attract and develop the best kind of people, and importantly create brands people love. Cadbury believes that good ethics and good business go together naturally to produce the best long-term results for all our stakeholders. The textbook had none of this information talked about on the internet.

 
3.2.2 Internet Case Information 

In the Our Strategy section on the internet it states how Cadbury Schweppes' strategy is to create robust and sustainable regional positions in its two core markets, confectionery and beverages, through organic growth, acquisitions and disposals.  Over the past five years, an active program of acquisitions and disposals has significantly strengthened their business.  They have exited markets where they believed they did not have or could not build sustainable business models. 

Through a series of acquisitions, they have strengthened existing positions and extended their presence in higher margin, faster growing product categories or geographies within their core markets. In the Goals and Priorities section the Group's five goals for the 2004-2007 period are to: deliver superior shareowner returns on the back of superior business performance profitably and significantly increase their share of the global confectionery market profitably secure and then grow their share of the regional beverages markets in which the group has chosen to participate and ensure that the group's growth capabilities are best in class and to reinforce their reputation as a Company which motivates, develops and rewards employees for superior performance and makes a difference in the communities in which we do business. 

In the Market Place area it says how their products fulfill a broad range of needs. Cadbury beverages quench thirst, provide refreshment and taste and reflect lifestyles. Their confectionery offers energy, taste, rewards and gift opportunities. They cater for these fundamental needs in a range of products which offer a huge variety of ingredients and styles. Variety is important. In their business freedom of choice means not only the freedom to seek new combinations of old favorites, but also new experiences. 

In February 2003, the Group announced a comprehensive management and organizational change designed to position the group more effectively to drive a more focused growth and efficiency agenda, to enable the successful integration of Adams and to put the next generation of management in place.  On the Internet I found some useful financial numbers analysis in the Financial Number’s section that show what type of profit or loss Cadbury was showing through recent years. In the Business Principles section

I learned that Cadbury believes that good ethics and good business go together naturally to produce the best long-term results for all our stakeholders. Ethical business sits at the heart of Cadbury Schweppes. It always has. It is part of who they are, their heritage, their processes, and the way they behave.  Cadbury’s business principles reflect and reinforce this. Through those principles they continue to play a positive part in society, grow shareowner value, attract and develop the best kind of people, and importantly create brands people love.

Comparison of Textbook to Internet

After researching the internet information and comparing it to the textbook information I feel this is where the internet earns its slight edge over the text.  What I discovered pretty much backed up the earlier statements I made that while the textbook is an excellent base learning point the internet provides much further detail.  I found several key marketing categories and information that was important information. I felt it was key to learn about the different sales channel and the new PC trade-in program Gateway has.  The new PC trade-in program is a perfect example of showing how the internet is useful because it is filled with current and up to date information.  In these categories I found the internet to be more useful than the textbook was. 

4 Frito Lay Company: Cracker Jack

4.1 New Ventures Division, Competitors, Marketing Practice, Carmel Popcorn Consumer, Brand Heritage Cracker Jack Product Line and Positioning, Advertising and Promotion, Sales and Distribution, Pricing, Manufacturing, Brand Management, Manufacturing and Product Assurance, Finance and Administration

4.1.1 Textbook Case Information

The book talks about New Ventures Division at Frito-Lay which was originated in December 1996. According to Casey Joseph, Frito-Lay’s Senior Vice President – Worldwide Marketing, the primary purpose of the New Ventures Division was to create meaningful growth outside of Frito-Lay’s already successful existing snack businesses, and secondarily augment ongoing internal product development activities.  During the winter of 1997, the New Ventures mission manifested itself as a deliberate approach for identifying the developing sales and profit growth opportunities for Frito-Lay.

Ongoing internal research and development efforts to identify “better-for-you” products for morning and all-day consumption fell into this category. The announcement by Borden of its intention to divest the Cracker Jack brand and related assets represented a potential fit with all three growth avenues.  In the Competitors section the book talks about how several different types of competitors serve the RTE caramel popcorn category: (1) nation brand firms, (2) seasonal/specialty firms, (3) regional firms, and (4) private label firms. 

International Home Foods, Inc. (crunch ‘n munch) and Borden Foods (Cracker Jack) are the RTE caramel popcorn category dollar and volume market share leaders in the United States.  Borden, Inc. is owned by the investment firm of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. which purchased the company for $1.9 billion in 1994. Borden, Inc. is owned by the investment firm of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., which purchased the company for $1.9 billion in 1994. Although, widely known for its dairy products, Borden divested its dairy business in 1997. Today, the company makes pasta, soup mixes, and bouillon, snack foods.

The book shows a charted showing the estimated 1996 sales and pound volume market shares for individual national brands, seasonal/specialty/regional brands, and private labels.  The book talks about the Marketing Practice in how RTE caramel popcorn is generally viewed among snack food industry analysts as an “undermarketed” category, when compared with microwave popcorn and most other snack categories. 

Only Crunch ‘n Munch and Cracker Jack have been recently advertised in consumer media. Crunch ‘n Munch leads the category in advertising expenditures, outspending Cracker Jack by a wide margin since 1993 shown in a chart in the book.  Cracker Jack is the premium-priced brand in the RTE caramel popcorn category. Its total brand average price premium relative to Crunch ‘n Munch has averaged about 28 percent over the past three years. Private labels are typically the lowest priced brands. Regional brands are often priced between national brands and private labels.

In the Caramel Popcorn Consumer section the book talks about the industry research that RTE caramel popcorn is a snack primarily eaten at home in the afternoon and evening as a treat or reward.  Four of five users eat RTE caramel popcorn at home and 80 percent of eating occasions are in the afternoon or evening hours.  Industry research shows that US households with a female household head between the ages of 25 and 44, with children ages 4 to 17, are the heavy users of RTE caramel popcorn and Cracker Jack.  In the Brand Heritage section the book talks about how Cracker Jack is the original caramel popcorn. Invented by F.W. Ruekheim, the confection of popcorn, peanuts, and molasses was first made and sold in 1893 at the World’s Fair Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, IL.

The Cracker Jack name was coined in 1896.  In the Cracker Jack Product Line and Positioning section the book talks about for 100years, the Cracker Jack product line consisted only of caramel-coated popcorn and peanuts, using the original recipe developed by F.W. Ruekheim. Cracker Jack is sold in a variety of packages. The product is packaged in 1.05 ounce and 1.25 ounce single-serve boxes and bags and 7-ounce and 8-ounce family-size bags and bags-in-boxes. 

Cracker Jack positioning over the past 30 years focused on its brand heritage as a traditional fun treat.  Cracker Jack’s positioning was broadened in mid-1997 to emphasize the “better-for-you” qualities of Cracker Jack.  In the advertising and Promotion section the book talks about annual advertising and promotion spending for the cracker Jack brand, as a percentage of sales, has ranged between 28-40 percent since 1993.  The Cracker Jack toy surprise is another element of the advertising and promotion program. The choice of prizes is based on research among mothers and children to determine appeal. 

In addition to long-time favorites, such as miniature baseball cards, Cracker Jack has licensed high-profile children’s properties since 1995 to add value to the toy surprise.  In the Sales and Distribution section the book talks about how Cracker Jack’s sales volume is concentrated in the United States, where 98.9 percent of sales occur.  Cracker Jack is sole through a shared Borden sales force that also sells cheese and other Borden grocery brands.  Cracker Jack is shipped from 13 company distribution centers to retail store distribution centers or warehouses and subsequently delivered to retail outlets for stocking on store shelves by retail store personnel. 

In the Pricing section the book talks about Cracker Jack prices that have risen by an average of 5 or 6 percent per year since 1993. In the Manufacturing section the book talks about how Borden Foods manufactures Cracker Jack at its Northbrook, IL, facility along with selected Borden Foods soup products. Cracker Jack equipment occupies about 32 percent of the facility’s manufacturing space.  Prizes are collated on custom-made equipment designed by the company, and electric eyes are placed within the production lines to ensure that these prizes are inserted in the boxes.

In the brand management section the book talks about the consensus opinion among the new ventures team was that brand management considerations would drive project bingo. Tow studies were commissioned, including brand awareness, image, equity, and usage study, and a simulated test market. Brand Awareness, Image, Equity, and Usage Study was an independent research firm that specialized in ongoing brand-tracking studies for consumer goods companies submitted its report to project bingo’s brand marketing team in June 1997.

The Simulated Test Market was for preliminary results from the simulated test market also proved encouraging, according to a brand marketing team member. The Sales and Distribution section in the book talks about Frito Lay sales and distribution personnel were consulted soon after the Cracker Jack acquisition opportunity became public. Sales and distribution personnel raised two issues related to the acquisition. First, the number of Cracker Jack SKUs seemed too large and the estimated cost of a direct-store-delivery (DSD) like that employed by Frito-Lay appeared to be understated.

In the Manufacturing and Product Assurance section the book talks about Frito-Lay manufacturing and product assurance personnel were also favorably disposed toward the Cracker Jack acquisition. Like sales and distribution personnel, they expressed concerns about the number of Cracker Jack SKUs and the added complexity caused this large number from a production perspective. 

A senior Frito-Lay manufacturing executive also believed that the Cracker Jack cost of goods sold could be 10 percent less than Borden management’s projections. In the Finance and Administration section the talks about how Lynne Peissig engaged Frito-Lay planning personnel and PepsiCo merger and acquisition specialist to begin a valuation analysis of the Cracker Jack business in June of 1997. Peissig expected an animated discussion related to the Cracker Jack trade promotion and consumer advertising budget. Also, she believed that her presentation to senior PepsiCo executives should include consideration of the Cracker Jack acquisition relative to the internal development and commercialization of a new consumer food brand.

4.1.2 Internet Case Information

In looking on the internet Cracker Jack talks about "A Prize in Every Box" and how it was introduced when toys are inserted into every package. Cracker Jack is the world's largest user of toys: more than 17 billion since 1912. The most valuable of all Cracker Jack prizes are two sets of baseball cards together worth more than $125,000. 

The internet said Cracker Jack began advertising on television with the appearance of Cracker Jack on CBS-TV's "On Your Account" which is televised to 130 stations nationally. The internet talks about how a Columbus, Ohio-based Borden, Inc. purchases the Cracker Jack Company and It became the Cracker Jack division of Borden, Inc. The internet talks about how Frito Lay then purchases Cracker Jack brand from Borden.  As well as in the book I also found a lot of important and useful information about Cracker’s Jack Competition.  I also found on the internet good information on the way Cracker Jack markets themselves. 

It goes over their target market and what demographic they are trying to reach with their product.  It also says where they do most of their business is in Supermarkets and grocery stores and mass merchandise/warehouse/club stores which are the principal retail outlets for RTE caramel popcorn.  I was also able to find some information about their product line and positioning in the market place.  They also have information on the sales number for each of their products. 

On the internet there was also information on the pricing of their different products. Basically, I was able to find information that covered the very important 5 p’s of marketing.  On the internet there was also information on their advertising and promotional campaigns.  It went into further detail how important and how great of a sales idea adding the Cracker Jack toy surprise was to their success.  This enabled them to add children as a larger consumer of their product.  This effort enabled them to reach the impulse purchase market segmentation.

4.3 Comparison of Textbook to Internet "Comparing the information found in the textbook with that of the information found on the internet, I would say is generally about the same.  I feel the textbook works well because it is very easy to learn about the company because all of the information is easily accessible and in one general area. 

The book does an excellent job of teaching someone a great deal of useful company and marketing information.  The information on the internet pretty much reveals the same information.  The only draw back is that the internet information is not organized as well, but with a little bit of effort and time I was able to find the similar information. 

I feel the only area where the information on the internet is just a little better than the information found in the textbook is because it goes into greater detail in certain areas like the number analysis and sometimes certain information and facts are also much more up to date and current.  So, basically I feel they are both very good learning tools for someone to have.  The book is a great way to start and will give an individual a great foundation tom learn, and then the internet just adds to that base knowledge

A Century of Cracker Jack, Cracker Jack in the Millennium

4.2.1 Textbook Case Information

"From the internet to the textbook, the textbook did not have anything really about the future for Cracker Jack and how far they really have come.  The internet talked a lot about Cracker Jack from the beginning to now. The book did talk about a lot about Cracker Jack, but a lot of different information was found on the internet. 

The internet talks about how Cracker Jack got their name in the beginning. Louis Rueckheim, F.W.'s brother and partner, discovers the process for keeping the molasses-covered popcorn morsels from sticking together. Louis gives the treat to a salesman who exclaims, "That's crackerjack!" "So it is," says F.W. Rueckheim, who then has the words trademarked.  On the internet Cracker Jack talks about their stages of growing up. The book didn’t really discuss Cracker from then to now. 

The internet talks about how in 1975 Cracker Jack had automated, high-speed, continuous cooking machinery which replaces the metal tubs in which Cracker Jack became batch-coated.  Also, In the new Century of Cracker Jack in 1992 butter Toffee flavor Cracker Jack Popcorn is introduced, in 1993 Cracker Jack celebrates its 100th anniversary, in 1995 Fat-free Cracker Jack brand is introduced, in1997 Frito Lay purchases Cracker Jack brand from Borden, and in 1999 a new Cracker Jack television ad runs during the championship pro football game on January 31st.

I found this information important because it shows how from year to year they changed Cracker Jack and the book does not cover this area.  The Cracker Jack case was done in the textbook in 1999 which brings me to talk about how Cracker Jack made some changes for the millennium in which the book did not cover because of the year it was done. The internet talked about the new website for Cracker Jack, a new advertising and keeping the website up to date. The book does not cover a lot of the stuff that the internet did or does for that matter. The book is a good source but sometimes leaves out the important facts to what really matters.

4.2.2 Internet Case Information

Within the internet, it talks about, a unique popcorn, peanuts and molasses confection that was the forerunner to Cracker Jack caramel coated popcorn and peanuts that was introduced by F.W. Rueckheim and Brother, at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago's first World's Fair.  Louis Rueckheim, F.W.'s brother and partner, discovers the process for keeping the molasses-covered popcorn morsels from sticking together. Louis gives the treat to a salesman who exclaims, "That's crackerjack!" "So it is," says F.W. Rueckheim, who then has the words trademarked. 

The internet also talks about how Cracker Jack Grows Up. In 1975 Cracker Jack had automated, high-speed, continuous cooking machinery which replaces the metal tubs in which Cracker Jack became batch-coated.  Also, In the new Century of Cracker Jack in 1992 butter Toffee flavor Cracker Jack Popcorn is introduced, in 1993 Cracker Jack celebrates its 100th anniversary, in 1995 Fat-free Cracker Jack brand is introduced, in1997 Frito Lay purchases Cracker Jack brand from Borden, and in 1999 a new Cracker Jack television ad runs during the championship pro football game on January 31st. It's the first television advertising for Cracker Jack brand in 15 years. 

In the start of the millennium Cracker Jack decided to something new so, Frito Lay launches crackerjack.com to inform and entertain fans of Cracker Jack.  Cracker Jack releases Butter Toffee Clusters in November of 2000.  In response to strong consumer demand, Cracker Jack launches Butter Toffee Peanuts in 2002 and then Frito Lay redesigned crackerjack.com to keep up with changing technologies on the Internet

4.2.3 Comparison of Textbook to Internet

After researching the internet information and comparing it to the textbook information I feel this is where the internet earns its slight edge over the text.  What I discovered pretty much backed up the earlier statements I made that while the textbook is an excellent base learning point the internet provides much further detail. 

I found several key marketing categories and information that was important information. I felt it was key to learn about the different sales channel and the new PC trade-in program Gateway has.  The new PC trade-in program is a perfect example of showing how the internet is useful because it is filled with current and up to date information.  In these categories I found the internet to be more useful than the textbook was.

After completing this case study analysis and comparing information found in the textbook to that of the information found on the internet I realized several important facts.  I genuinely feel that both the textbook information and the internet information are very helpful in learning and both serve a valuable purpose.  To me, the information found in the textbook is a very good resource.  The textbook information provides one with important general knowledge about the company being reviewed in the case study. 

It organizes all the information in a way that makes it very easy for someone to learn information about that specific company.  It goes over company background, marketing strategies, competition, and number analysis.  I feel it is an important tool one should use as a stepping stone to gain this information.  The internet then lets one take that basic knowledge and information they have gathered from the textbook to the next level. 

On the internet, even though the information is not organized as well, with a little bit of time and effort one can learn even more about the company and discover greater details about that company.  The only other area in which the internet is better than the textbook is that the internet most of the time is more up to date and current with its information.  So, I do definitely feel that learning from the textbook and using its information first, and then exploring the internet goes hand and hand.  Together they are a great combination and are valuable learning tools in the world of Marketing.

WASHINGTON DC TEACHER'S UNION
(Back to Top)

A long time ago and a short time ago. In a place both near and far away a professor decided to offer to help the washing DC Teachers Union I looked on the we and found a blog of a teacher who appeared to be fighting for the teachers. I sent her the following e-mail and offered my help.

November 20, 2007

Dear Fellow Teacher Elizabeth Davis:

I am a Professor of Marketing at the University of New Haven.

I am writing to you to ask if you would like my help?

We faced the exact same thing at the University of New Haven that you are facing in Washington D.C.

It is a national effort to destroy faculty power and change the school curriculum to a corporate education training model. This training model does not require educated teachers.

I must tell you that they have a very good chance of succeeding. They have a great deal of experience and will do anything to win.

The amount of money that is up for grabs is enormous.

From the time our new president arrived I researched and identified patterns that are the exact same as yours. The language and strategy are the same. Michael Rhee has been carefully selected. My guess is that she will do anything to anyone to succeed.

I can give you and your group real issues, research, and experience. Research that if your students' parents can hear and see they will come to far different conclusions.

The challenge will be for your other union members to participate in the process of saving themselves. It is not in our nature to believe that something is so orchestrated against us. We are under the delusion that somehow the process is and will be fair. Union leadership will stand by paralyzed with real threats and fear.

We also cannot believe that they come for us in particular. As humans we find it difficult to believe that we will not be protected because of our dedication. The dedicated ones must go first.

If you are interested I will write some small articles for your blog.

I will also be happy to come and talk for expenses.

I can also help you with counter strategies that are obvious to others.

I would ask if you could send to me or foreword my name and my websites to others to look at and come to their own conclusions. Particularly look at assessments of textbooks.

It is not that our students are not capable of learning. It is that teachers are forced to use textbooks and tests that are created for the exact opposite purpose.

To be more specific black students are one of the many nonlinear groups of people that have learned through a history of storytelling. The current curriculum and their textbooks are the exact opposite.

How do I know you may ask? I am Irish heritage and come from that same learning foundation.

My Ph.D. is in Instructional Design from Syracuse University. I have rethought and developed methods to teacher both nonlinear and linear students.

All the best,

DM

Marketing Application

Opposition groups may actually be set up by those in power. Be careful. I first planned to contact the head of the Union but I found an article where he was supporting management. These are hard game where education is concerned. Education drives societal direction.


emaildavidmorris@gmail.com

"The more we rely on textbooks and their distance learning courses the less valuable we will become as teachers." DM